On Wednesday, July 4th, 2012, Transport Canada issued the long expected and final amendments to the CARs affecting what aircraft do and do not require TAWS (Terrain Awareness Warning Systems).
The new TAWS regulations apply to virtually all commercial air taxi, commuter and/or airline operations. These fall into the CARs Subparts 703, 704 and 705. The new regulations will also apply to private operators of turbine-powered aircraft with 6 or more pax seats.
The new regulations are effective immediately for airplanes manufactured on or after July 4, 2012. They also apply to newly manufactured aircraft that enter Canada on a leaseback arrangement.
Aircraft manufactured before July 4, 2012 have two (2) years after the date of Final Rule to have a TSO C151b compliant TAWS Systems installed and Transport Canada certified. All TAWS Systems must be compliant with the EAA requirement within 5 years of the date of Final Rule.
Under the new regulations TAWS is required for airplanes involved in the following CARs categories of operation:
CAR Subparts Regulatory Requirements
Subpart 605 Private turbine-powered aeroplanes and commercial aircraft configured with six or more seats, excluding pilot seats, except when operated DAY Visual Flight Rules, will be required to be equipped with Class A or B TAWS with EAA functionality.
Subpart 703 Aeroplanes configured with six or more seats, excluding pilot seats, except when operated DAY Visual Flight Rules, will be required to be equipped with Class A or B TAWS with EAA functionality.
Subpart 704 Aeroplanes configured with six to nine passenger seats, except when operated DAY
Visual Flight Rules, will be required to be equipped with Class A or B TAWS with EAA functionality.
Aeroplanes configured with 10 or more passenger seats, exclusive of pilot seats, except when operated DAY Visual Flight Rules, would be required to be equipped with Class A TAWS with EAA functionality, a terrain awareness and situational display.
Subpart 705 Aeroplanes will be required to be equipped with Class A TAWS with EAA functionality, a terrain awareness and situational display. The full and complete published amended regulation is online at http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rppr/p2/2012/2012-07-04/html/sor-dors136-eng.html.
According to information from Transport Canada contained in the regulatory change documents for TAWS, the number of CFIT incidents tracked from 1977 to 2009 has driven this new regulation. During that period 35 airworthy aeroplanes were flown into the ground while under pilot control. More properly termed controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) accidents, there were 100 fatalities and 46 serious injuries during that reporting period. Unfortunately there have been a rash of incidents since then that have driven those numbers significantly higher.
Transport Canada did start to look at this issue back in the mid 1990s – following FAA’s TAWS
rulemaking activity. Canadian TAWS rules have been bogged down since that time in a series of delays involving studies on everything from costs efficiencies through to aircraft applicability and implementation.
The CARs have required that aircraft operated under Subpart 705 - Airline Operations - be equipped with a Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) since the mid-1980s. The technology at the core of GPWS has evolved and today virtually eliminates the CFIT risk.
GPWS out - TAWS in:
The new generation of GPWS, better known as TAWS, provides:
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