May 7--When Maurine Davis was planning a vacation to England and Italy from her home in Des Moines, Iowa, earlier this year, she found that trading the uncomfortable squeeze of the economy cabin for a nicer seat upfront on the airplane would cost her $6,600.
She chose instead to hop a Northwest Airlines plane to Washington Dulles International Airport, where she boarded an upstart discount carrier called MAXjet Airways that promised creature comforts and a sale price under $1,000.
"My son was looking online for me, and when he said MAXjet, I said who?" she said of the all business-class carrier that launched April 3 from Dulles.
"I'm pioneering. I liked the price. We'll see how it goes," Davis said.
She won't be the only one.
Airlines, from new discounters to the traditional carriers, are keenly aware of each other's moves in a growing battle for what may be the industry's last dependable cash cow - the richest customers on some of the world's most popular routes between the United States and the United Kingdom.
The luxury trans-Atlantic flier is being treated to even more pampering at the same time the airlines, faced with rising labor and fuel costs and intense price competition, are cutting such things as food and pillows for passengers in the domestic economy seats.
British Airways, Virgin Atlantic Airways, United Airlines and American Airlines are adding flat beds and improving entertainment and stowage space in their premium cabins. They face not only MAXjet, which is targeting business travelers, but another overseas discounter, Eos Airlines, offering all first-class service. Both fly a handful of times a week from Washington or New York to London.
"We take them seriously," said Martin George, commercial director for British Airways, in an interview in Baltimore recently, about the upscale overseas entrants. "Our response is the new business class. We want to respond before the question gets asked about what we are doing. ... We need to offer a great value for the money."
British Airways has long been linked to English refinement and at one time didn't think discount airlines were a threat. George said the airline mistakenly ignored two upstart European carriers, RyanAir and easyJet, that swiped BA's economy-class business for years before the bigger carrier cut fares.
George said the airline was expecting competition from discount rivals on international routes eventually, but not necessarily targeting its top-tier passengers on its busiest overseas routes.
It's these passengers who are really worth preserving. Premium cabins (business and first class) typically comprise 10 percent of the seats on major airlines but produce up to half the income.
MAXjet launched service to London in early April from Dulles, its headquarters. It began service from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport to London in November. It flies 102 business class-only passengers on Boeing 767s built for more than 200, and offers seats that deeply recline, "restaurant-quality" meals and 60 inches of space between people. Non-sale fares start at $1,750 round-trip.
Eos began its all first-class service in October from New York to London. It seats only 48 first-class travelers on its Boeing 757s, a narrower plane also meant for more than 200. Eos and MAXjet fly to London's Stansted airport.
"We offer one kind of plane and one kind of seat and that costs less," said Gary Rogliano, MAXjet chief executive. "It's the low-cost, Southwest kind of model, only for trans-Atlantic business class."
He said the company explored other variations, such as offering all economy seats, but he said this plan to fly premium passengers on overseas flights seemed to be the most unique and highest-revenue producing. And until now, there has not been much discounter competition.
MAXjet is a private company, but Rogliano says it breaks even and could make a profit this summer. Business people make up about 70 percent of the passengers, and the rest are vacationers, he said. About 15 percent to 20 percent normally travel economy class when they fly overseas.
The airline plans to add flights from other U.S. cities to London in the next two years.
On a recent flight from Dulles, the plane had 38 passengers who waited for boarding in a designated lounge, where snacks and computer hookups were available.Once they settled into their wide leather recliners on the plane, passengers were served hors d'oeuvres by an army of flight attendants dressed smartly in gray pinstripes and scarves. They were offered portable TVs and DVD players with their choice of entertainment.
Davis, the Des Moines traveler, said a MAXjet agent called her a few days before her flight to check on her.
"They're very attentive," said Robert C. McFarlane, former national security adviser to President Ronald W. Reagan, who now heads an energy development firm and has flown MAXjet four times. "They're serious about wanting to run a good airline. I normally fly business class, but this is one-third the usual cost."
Flights between the United States and the United Kingdom are by far the most traveled North Atlantic routes, with almost 17 million passengers in 2004, according to the International Air Transport Association. The number is expected to grow to about 21.3 million by 2009.
But some analysts believe there may not be enough business for more airlines.
Business travelers also may not want to give up the fuller schedules, vast route structure and frequent-flier programs of the traditional carriers.
Travelers also would have to give up Heathrow Airport, the traditional businessman's destination, which is a 15-minute express train ride to central London. Stansted, a small, low-cost hub airport, is a 45-minute ride to downtown London. Gatwick airport, the region's second-largest airport, is a 30-minute ride.
Hugo Burge, vice chairman of Cheapflights.com, which helps travelers find fares in both the United States and the United Kingdom, said long-term the new airlines likely will lure more leisure travelers who are interested in the perks but are more price sensitive than executives with expense accounts.
For now, MAXjet and Eos aren't likely to force down prices on major carriers because they don't offer many flights.
Further, some of the cabin upgrades can be attributed to general competition rather than competition from the new entrants, he said. Several major U.S. carriers seeking more revenue have shifted flights to overseas routes, including Europe and big growth markets in Asia and the Mideast.
"I don't think the startups are much of a threat just yet, but I'm sure the traditional carriers are watching them carefully," Burge said. "The jury is still out on how successful they'll be. I'm a huge fan of the idea."
Burge said he expects the startups to grow "solidly, not rapidly," and said they would do well to target U.S. airports with a large presence of discount airlines, such as Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport.
MAXjet's Rogliano said he chose Dulles over the discount hub at BWI because it's in the middle of a large population that travel internationally frequently. BWI offers one daily flight to London on British Airways, while Dulles offers several.
If you ask Leroy Hobson, who lives in Kensworth 35 miles north of London and travels frequently for his job at Chubb Group of Insurance Cos., the United Kingdom's biggest carrier has nothing to worry about.
He considers himself loyal to British Airways. He needs its flexibility in times and destinations, because he flies often through Europe and to the United States. He prefers Heathrow. And as a frequent flier, he enjoys perks and attention from the airline.
"Saving that amount of money is interesting," he said as he waited at Dulles for a flight to London.
"But I'm a gold card member on British Airways, and they look after me pretty well," he said. "And to be brutally honest, I'm a business traveler and it's not my money. Someone would have to offer me something else really good besides savings."