FAA, Industry Prepare Standards For Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Accomplishing the necessary modeling and simulation just to develop standards could take another 4-5 years.

The list of federal agencies also includes those with non-defense and non-security mandates, such as the Department of the Interior and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as a range of local government agencies, Sabatini says.

"You name it, it's being thought of," an FAA spokesman tells Air Safety Week. "Right now, we are seeing UAs being considered for law enforcement surveillance, meteorological conditions studies, fire fighting, disaster relief, border enforcement, etc."

Thousands of UAs already are in use as profit-making ventures in the United States and around the world, said Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's Robert Owen, testifying at the same March 29 hearing as Sabatini. Not only is there no current regulatory coverage, but most operators also have no insurance coverage. About the closest these craft currently come to being regulated in the United States is an FAA advisory circular on the safe operation of model airplanes.

Moreover, the focus of UA regulatory development so far is only on military operations, which is not where UAs are likely to be viable economically on a large scale and in the near term, Owen said.

Because UA certification is considered a matter of "public aircraft operation" by the various government agencies involved, direct oversight for them actually falls outside of FAA authority, Sabatini says. But these public operations must still be in compliance with FAA regulations, and FAA issues the COAs that allow other government agencies to fly the craft.

For a manufacturer, FAA can issue an airworthiness certificate after the firm submits a thorough "program letter," describing the unmanned aircraft system and how and where the craft will be flown. Fourteen program letters have been received so far at FAA, but only two of certificates have been issued for General Atomics's Altair and for Bell-Textron's tilt-rotor Eagel Eye (photos of both are on p. 2). That number is expected to double to four this year.

FAA's Sabatini says the approved craft or systems have to have numerous fail-safe measures for loss of link and system failures." In case all links to ground control become lost, the first line of defense is ensuring beforehand that all flight paths are only in unpopulated areas. Also, the "pilot" (or ground commander) must immediately alert air traffic control (ATC) of a problem. Information about what the craft in question can do or can't do is pre- coordinated with ATC far in advance of the flight.

Certified UA operators are not yet required to report accidents or incidents to FAA, an agency spokesman tells Air Safety Week. But the agency is developing a program to request performance and reliability data, to assist in standards development.

Accident data, so far, appears to be anecdotal. The FAA spokesman cites the early April crash of one of an Eagle Eye. While "restrictions imbedded in the certificate prevented any injury or loss of life," information gathered from this crash points to "having robust standards for radio spectrum usage and protection from interference."

While the as-yet conceived detect-and-avoid system will eventually allow some UAs into the national airspace, other UAs will never get there, Sabatini says. A primary issue is the weight of the avionics, including transponders, versus the weight of the aircraft. In some cases, the latter is just a few ounces. Another potential safety issue stems from some UAs' ability to fly at twice the speed of large commercial aircraft, which complicates management of the airspace and the job of air traffic control.

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