A year ago, as US Airways slid into its second bankruptcy, pundits predicted death.
How could it survive, they wondered, amid labor strife, bruising competition and surging fuel prices?
Against long odds, Charlotte's dominant carrier found a way. Heading out of bankruptcy, the airline sits poised to merge with America West Airlines this month.
Yet for all its Houdini-like escapes, challenges remain.
The same dire conditions that led analysts to forecast doom a year ago continue to bedevil the airline industry. Last week, Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines became the latest carriers to succumb to bankruptcy protection.
Given the tremendous challenges that continue to torpedo airlines, how long can the reborn US Airways survive?
Analysts say money pouring into the merger should allow the airline to stay afloat for at least a year or two. Beyond that, they say, its fate rests on a mix of management skill and raw luck.
US Airways' biggest protection against immediate problems is its pile of cash.When the America West deal closes, scheduled for Sept. 27, the combined airline expects to have about $2.5 billion on hand. The money comes from the airlines' current holdings and the sale of some assets, plus new money from a variety of investors and vendors.
It's a lot of money for a company expecting about $10 billion in annual revenue, says Bob Mann, an airline analyst who's the financial adviser for America West's pilots' union.
"Cash is king," he said.
That stockpile will allow US Airways to endure repeated quarterly losses. It forecasts a $65 million loss in 2006 before turning $316 million in profit in 2007, according to court filings. But if those projections are optimistic -- and bankruptcy-court projections are often rosy -- the airline has a cushion.
Leaders of the new company say they aren't planning any spending binges.
"It's not in our DNA," Scott Kirby, the airline's executive vice president for sales and marketing, said in a recent interview.
Yet to operate a successful airline, Kirby and his colleagues must do more than simply husband their cash.
Since announcing merger plans in May, America West chief Doug Parker has made his case -- to analysts, investors, employees and the news media -- about how they'll make money combining the two carriers.
The crux of the plan is this: Merge the airlines, eliminate overlapping management and software, cut 60 planes from the fleet, and gain additional passengers from having a route system that stretches from Hawaii to the West Coast to the Caribbean to Europe. The airline expects those changes alone to save at least $600 million a year.
Parker's predictions are gaining converts. Over the summer, the merger continued to attract new investors, bringing total outside equity to $565 million, up more than $200 million since the deal was announced.
Wall Street likes the deal, too. Since mid-May, America West's stock has risen 56 percent, closing Friday at $7.51.
Parker, 43, is widely viewed as one of the industry's most promising leaders. He took over America West two weeks before the 9-11 attacks, yet steered it to a profit in 2003. The company lost money last year, but far less than most of its peers.
For the merger to succeed, Parker's team must continue to cut costs as it aligns flight schedules, ramps up marketing and manages what could be a tricky integration of labor groups, analysts say. Because of steep cost-cutting in bankruptcy court, the new US Airways is expected to have lower costs than other old-line carriers.
John Luth, chief executive of Seabury Group, which helped structure the deal, said in an interview this summer that the merger's success "is reducible down to executable management tasks, which aren't rocket-scientist-level kinds of tasks. ... They are things that can be accomplished with planning and effort and good management."
Decisions on the merger by a federal loan board, the Transportation Department and US Airways' bankruptcy judge could follow within weeks.
The continued existence of US Airways, which is in its second round of bankruptcy protection and now flirting with a merger, defies the conventional wisdom in vogue since the airline industry went...