When BWI bet on Southwest Airlines 13 years ago, passengers drove from as far away as Philadelphia to snare the low fares.
Cheap tickets, however, aren't unique to Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport anymore. And passengers aren't willing to sacrifice things like convenient parking, good roads and shopping when deciding where to fly from if ticket prices are similar.
That's one reason why BWI put the finishing touches on $1.6 billion, five-year expansion and improvement program last week. They believe it will help them to keep passenger traffic flowing.
Airport officials say passengers have a lot of choices, especially since popular discounters such as Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways have been ramping up operations at many airports. To cement its place as one of Southwest's largest hubs, BWI made the airline's state-of-the-art, $264 million terminal the anchor of its program.
Upgrades to the airport building and roadway also doubled retail space, expanded curbside drop-off and ticketing space, added new shuttle buses, a daily parking garage and a stand-alone rental-car facility.
Passengers, who have long griped about such things as parking, ticket and security lines and lack of international flights may not be altogether won over, but several last week said they like some of what they've seen.
Scott Drake, a contractor from St. Louis on a job in Winchester, Va., drives past Washington Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia every two weeks to fly home on Southwest from BWI.
"Mainly, I don't want to think about the airport, but I have to," he said. "I'd really like the [long-term] parking to be closer to the terminal. But the shuttle bus isn't bad. In fact, this time I didn't have to wait at all, the trip was pretty quick and it was easy to get into the terminal."
Easy. That's what BWI officials were hoping to hear.
Construction officials said there have been a lot of little improvements, such as the wider curbs, bigger elevators, moving sidewalks and brighter terminals with an eye to a smooth trip for 55,000 daily passengers.
Construction took five years largely because crews had to keep the airport open for business, said Christopher Mills, construction manager for Parsons Corp., hired by airport officials to oversee the project.
He said most work affecting passengers should be done by this weekend. About $78.8 million in airfield work over the next four years and $36 million in upgrades to the baggage screening system continues. Installation of wireless Internet access also is under way.
Jonathan Dean, BWI spokesman, said passengers would no longer have to endure the dust, noise and detours.
"All the Jersey barriers and construction cones will be gone from the passengers areas," he said.
Close to three-quarters of the project's elements at the state-owned airport were financed through bonds. The rest of the money came from such sources as the passenger facility charge of $4.50 that BWI began tacking on to all departing flights before construction began.
Other sources of funding include the state's transportation trust fund set up to pay for capital construction, and a federal grant program for airport projects. Southwest Airlines, the Transportation Security Administration and the retail concessionaire BAA Maryland Inc. also made investments.
Debt payments -- which peaked in fiscal 2006 at $48.7 million -- are being made from the airport's $212 million in annual revenue after operating expenses are paid. That revenue comes from airline lease payments and landing fees, parking, rent from shops and other sources.
Darryl Jenkins, a Washington-area airline consultant, said debate continues over what to spend money on for improvements. If they spend too little, passengers may choose other airports but if airport officials spend too much, they could make the fees too high for airlines and retailers.
Southwest acknowledges that the move to Dulles is atypical and that some business will shift from BWI. About 10 percent of BWI passengers drive in from Virginia.
Carriers at BWI have suffered from the competition Independence Air created since it began flights at Dulles in June 2004.
Departed private manager left innovative lesson plan for authority to follow