When the airline industry went into a deep slump after the 2001 terrorist attacks, American Airlines' pilots, flight attendants and mechanics agreed to billions of dollars in cuts in wages and benefits to keep the carrier afloat.
Now AMR Corp., American's parent, is back in the black, so much so that 874 top executives will receive more than $150 million in stock bonuses next week.
As for the 57,000 rank-and-file employees, they're seeing red.
"We made huge sacrifices," said Dana Davis, an 18-year American employee and spokeswoman for the Assn. of Professional Flight Attendants.
The airline's 18,000 attendants took an across-the-board 16% pay cut and gave up vacation days. "We're not getting anything back for it," Davis said.
Flight attendants staged a protest at the carrier's Fort Worth headquarters Friday. On Tuesday, they'll conduct so-called informational picket lines at Los Angeles International Airport and 15 others around the country. Some will carry signs saying: "We Shared the Pain/Time to Share the Gain" and "Pulling Together or Pulling Apart?"
After five years of multibillion-dollar losses, airlines began making money in 2006 and executives are cashing in, setting the stage for contentious negotiations with employees whose labor contracts start expiring later this year.
"It's going to get nasty," said Michael Boyd, an industry consultant. The airlines "have really messed this up. The employees worked hard, gave back and it looks like management is basically saying, 'Thanks for the giveback, suckers.' "
At United Airlines Inc., which emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February, workers were infuriated when they learned about Chief Executive Glenn Tilton's 2006 shares and options package, potentially worth $38 million.
Unions representing United's pilots and flight attendants on Friday urged members who hold stock in the company to vote against management's nominees for the board, including Tilton.
Flight attendants at Northwest Airlines Corp., angered by a potential payout of $380 million to 400 executives, are seeking court permission to strike. The attendants and other employees want to fight contract terms imposed during Chapter 11 proceedings that cut their wages by $1.1 billion. On Friday, a U.S. Bankruptcy Court judge denied requests by the union for a reversal of company-imposed pay cuts.
For its part, American says the executive bonuses, part of a stock-based performance share plan, are necessary to retain managers. And, the airline says, it's a logical way to reward managers for turning American around. The carrier was one of the few to avoid bankruptcy.
Since March 2003, when American's share price was $1.41, the stock has climbed to more than $30. Last year, the carrier, which hadn't turned a profit since 2000, recorded net income of $231 million.
American says it is one of the few large carriers that maintains a pension plan for employees.
"Our employees have among the best compensation packages in the airline industry," company spokesman Andy Backover said.
He added that American in 2003 gave employees $38 million in stock options that are now valued at about $1 billion. About half of the options have been exercised.
The wage and benefit cuts that American employees agreed to in 2003 totaled $1.6 billion. The unions calculate that in the four years since, the cumulative effect has reduced workers' compensation by about $6 billion.
Daniel Pedrotty, an expert on corporate governance for the AFL-CIO, said American's executive bonuses weren't outrageous, considering the outsized executive compensation packages awarded in some other industries. The actual value of the bonuses will depend on share prices Wednesday, the day the incentive awards are distributed, but it will work out to about $200,000 per executive if the pool is equally divided.
IN the 30 years since the the government deregulated the airline industry, only two major carriers, American and Southwest, have avoided bankruptcy. Some, such as Houston's own Continental, US...
Even if the leaders of United and Continental agree to merge their airlines, the hard work of combining two work forces with different unions and conflicting interests will remain.
The history of the airline industry is littered with cases in which peace in the boardroom was followed by rancor among co-workers at 30,000 feet.
"Executives have failed to lead by example, as employees have watched these individuals collect millions of dollars worth of stock, pay raises and bonuses."