Human factors trainers use accident or event scenarios to emphasize a point or to permit students to find the human factors contributing factors. Such learning experiences should probably not predate the students’ birth. While accidents and events are infrequent, those used for HF training should be current. New scenarios are on the trainers’ wish lists.
Finally, when there are regulations, they must be met. Therefore, organizations want to be sure that the chosen training methods and content meet the requirements. Many organizations do not have HF training requirements, but are committed to continuing safety and efficiencies. That goal is fulfilled by the regulatory requirements.
Safety Behaviours – Human Factors for Engineers
CASA’s safety promotion team, with technical leadership from human factors specialist Gareth McGraw, has just released the Safety Behaviours kit. It is a substantial package that includes: a 200-page resource guide for engineers; a student workbook; a facilitator’s guide; a packed DVD with a superb portrayal of a maintenance organization, as well as observations by human factors specialists; and a CD-ROM containing materials produced by CASA, and other National Aviation Authorities, including the FAA. It checks and exceeds every wish-list requirement.
See Figure 1 for a view of the materials, which are available for download free of charge at www.casa.gov.au/hf. International individuals/organizations can obtain a hard copy of the kit, with DVD and CD included, at www.casa.gov.au/onlinestore. The cost is about $100 USD, including postage and handling.
The content for the CASA training package is more than a repackaging of old ideas. The developers added value to the Dirty Dozen, to Dr. Jim Reason’s models of error and to the PEAR Model that this author created with Dr. Mike Maddox. For example, they enhanced the People, Environment, Actions and Resources in many ways. CASA subdivided People into Doing, Thinking, and Interacting, shown in Figure 2. That brilliant subdivision makes me ask “Why didn’t we think of that?”
The developers note that the content is in 100 percent alignment with the training requirements recommended by ICAO, EASA, and CASA. It appears that the content and excellent graphical layout exceeds the intentions of any current regulations. An example is Chapter 7, titled Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD). It has 15 pages of information on this relevant topic. Like all chapters, it follows a format that includes: an introduction; overview, specific details; points; and further information.
And then there are the support materials
CASA does not stop with an excellent eight-minute video integrated with the Resource Guide. The Workbook for Engineers has numerous activities for each of the 12 chapters. Many of the activities are focused on the video. The Facilitator’s Guide helps trainers to maximize the impact of the video as well as the printed materials. It ensures that the video is considerably more than an eight-minute show before break time. If the trainer wants more expertise, the DVD contains explanations/comments from a panel of 12 notable HF specialists. There is more. The deck of eight cards, shown in Figure 3, is a great pictorial reminder of engineering human factors challenges and solutions.
At the outset of this article, I mentioned that I have seen a considerable amount of HF training materials over the years. I have never seen a more professional and comprehensive package than CASA’s Safety Behaviours: Human Factors for Engineers. It is the new international yardstick (or metric ruler) by which other human factors training programs will be measured.
Dr. Johnson is grateful for the information provided by Margo Marchbank, Section Head Safety Promotion Communication & Managing Editor, Flight Safety Australia, Civil Aviation Safety Authority.
For further information contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dr. Bill Johnson is the FAA Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance Systems. Johnson is a member of the Human Factors Advisory Group to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The group worked with EASA to define human factors aspects of the proposed Safety Management System regulations.
The three-part document, which addresses all aspects of Maintenance SMS for operators and regulatory authorities, is nearly 500 pages. EASA considers not only safety but also costs.
Does one size fit all?
When you don’t understand or appreciate a particular music genre it “all sounds the same.” Let me explain. If you don’t like classical, opera, folk, rap, or hip hop music, when you hear...