It was deemed too difficult to expand the landside sector to support additional satellites, and there were doubts about the viability of the model as a whole. As an alternative to expansion at Terminal 1, the decision was to proceed with Terminal 2 as an independent terminal accessed from the north end of the airport.
In selecting the appropriate model for Terminal 2 at Incheon, many considerations were wieghed — the experience of the authority with Terminal 1, as well as the fundamental considerations of airport comfort, efficiency, and economy. Central to our thinking was, above all, passenger convenience.
This included a clear sense of orientation, speed of access to the departure gates, walking distances and efficiency of other forms of conveyance, ease and speed of transfer passengers, passenger amenities and retail opportunities, and a pleasant and comfortable public environment.
On the operational side, flexibility, ease of maneuvering aircraft, gate access, baggage handling, and many other facets of apron and terminal operations had to be considered. Economic viability depended on an efficient building where the number of square meters constructed per passenger was minimized, and sustainability and energy consumption was managed.
On the opposite side of the coin, income-generating operations, particularly retail, needed to be maximized to enhance the airport’s income. Finally, the building needed to possess flexibility to accommodate change in the structure of airlines and other operational adjustments, change to aircraft types, security requirements, and other technological changes that would affect operations in the future.
Our proposal was for a dedicated processor connected by an efficient and flexible IAT to three pods, square-ish in proportion (rather than elongated piers), each supporting between 21 and 26 gates. In addition to the underground transit system linking the three pods to the processor, there was a pedestrian link accommodating a high-speed moving walkway (moving at 117 meters per minute) connecting incoming and outgoing passengers to the first pod.
Thus, by concentrating many of the larger planes at Pod 1, the pressure on the train system was minimized and passengers are given a high speed option for transportation to and from the processor. The resulting terminal provides both train and pedestrian access to more than 30 percent of the passengers in the ultimate build-out, and more than 50 percent of the passengers in the first phase.
One of the primary considerations, and an important objective of the airport authority, was to increase retail performance and maximize retail revenues within Terminal 2. To achieve the highest level of retail performance within the design, we worked carefully with an international team of airport retail consultants.
Maximizing Direct Passenger Access
Based on the experience with other terminals, one of the key objectives of our organizational concept for Terminal 2 was to maximize direct passenger access to the retail amenities, and to increase the amount of time available for relaxed browsing of the shops.
Reducing the time and energy required for passengers to check in, pass security, and make their way to the gates would increase the time at the gates and the comfort of the passengers. Relaxed passengers, with more time to shop near their departure gates, would equal increased retail revenues. Therefore, we proposed to center the bulk of the retail operations within the airside departure pods and in close proximity to every departure gate.
Supporting between 21 and 26 departure gates, each pod would handle more than 15 million passengers per year.
Incorporating A Regional Tradition
Incheon Airport is the gateway to Korea and as such it must be designed to celebrate the ritual of arrival and departure from the country. Arriving by bus or car on axis along the central line of the terminal affords a welcoming view of a great public garden, beyond which was visible from the terminal and its transportation hub within the Central Garden.
Way-finding throughout the terminal was obvious and punctuated by pleasant architectural events.
The new gates at Toronto Pearson Int'l Airport will bring an immediate reduction in the amount of passengers currently being bussed from Terminal 1 to their gates at the Infield Terminal.
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