The first level of defense against fatigue requires both employee and employer engagement. As an individual, you must apply fatigue education to your life outside of work to proactively reduce fatigue. At the same time, the employer must review workload and scheduling practices, organizational policies, and on-the-job fatigue countermeasures that could be used to reduce fatigue.
Reducing or Capturing Fatigue-Related Errors
Despite efforts to ensure that employees are well-rested and alert when they report for duty, it is not possible to completely eliminate fatigue from the workplace. For example, if you come to work rested but end up working for 20 hours straight, you will likely be fatigued.
Accordingly, you must present a second line of defense that either prevents the likelihood of an error among fatigued workers or mitigates fatigue-related errors once they have occurred. In other words, we know that people are going to be fatigued at times, so we must consider how to manage the risk when a fatigued maintainer is at work.
These interventions can involve two approaches: measures directed towards reducing the risk of the individual and measures directed toward reducing the risk of a task. For example, to reduce the risk of a fatigued individual you can institute work breaks and simplify work tasks. You should try to prevent fatigued workers from performing the critical tasks.
Minimizing the Consequences of Fatigue-Related Errors
After efforts have been made to reduce fatigue and prevent or capture fatigue-related errors, a final line of defense is to minimize the harm caused by these errors. Although many elements of ground operations can affect flight safety, the risk level of a task varies along a continuum that ranges from the most safety-critical to the least critical.
For example, checking the expiration date on life jackets or returning work stands to storage areas when fatigued is less safety critical than conducting a dye penetrant inspection on the engine component.
Minimizing the consequences of fatigue-related errors focuses on managing the severity of an error’s consequences. Despite our best efforts, fatigue-related errors will happen from time to time. We need to make sure these errors do not have serious consequences.
Even a well-rested employee can commit fatigue-related errors if he or she is working the back side of the clock. Effective fatigue risk management requires that everyone take responsibility for the problem and utilize multiple mitigation strategies.
FRMS Tools You Can Use Now
The FAA’s multi-disciplinary maintenance fatigue work group has developed a subset of the tools that you can use to reduce fatigue risks in your organization. These tools address fatigue awareness and education, fatigue assessment, workload and scheduling, and return-on-investment. The resources are available on the FAA’s website for maintenance fatigue (www.mxfatigue.com).
The fatigue awareness and education tools include FAA’s award-winning video “Grounded,” a computer-based fatigue countermeasure workshop, fatigue awareness posters, and a fatigue focus newsletter. All of the tools were designed to communicate the hazards of fatigue, the indicators of fatigue, and methods to eliminate or reduce fatigue in an organization.
These fatigue assessment tools were developed to improve both personal and organizational assessment of fatigue. The available data show that individuals are poor judges of their own fatigue levels, and employers are asking the wrong fatigue-related questions when incidents/accidents happen. To address these issues, the workgroup has developed a self-assessment checklist and a fatigue assessment form (for investigating accidents/incidents and normal operations).
Additional tools that may be beneficial to your organization include a workload and scheduling tool and an automated return-on-investment model. These tools are currently under development and can be used as management decision aids to improve fatigue risk assessment and support the appropriate implementation of fatigue countermeasures. The tools will be available for public use by September 2011.
Take Home Message
Fatigue is a hazard that has serious negative effects on personal health and occupational safety. We can all do better at managing fatigue risks in our organization. Employees and employers alike can use available tools to manage fatigue and subsequently improve the efficiency and safety of their organization.
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Knowledge of fatigue hazards can become clouded by the necessity of meeting deadlines, fulfilling delivery promises, or pocketing some extra overtime wages.